Dispelling Document Security Myths

Dispelling Document Security MythsWith some of the recent cyber attacks on some of the biggest organizations across various industries, the risk of attack is becoming an increasingly pressing issue for all businesses. As we tread on this new territory of cybersecurity, companies are realizing that their documents are vulnerable. Unfortunately document security is still widely poorly understood.
 
 
Let’s dispel some of the myths that have emerged surrounding document security.


#1 The higher the level of protection the more disruptive it is for the end user


It’s a fact that the more secure a document is, the more barriers there are to accessing the document and the fewer options the reader has for copying, printing and otherwise interacting with the file. Software requirements are sometimes difficult to download and install, especially in environments that are IT restricted, and can make legitimate users irritated.

More and more, DRM software companies are trying to find a balance between providing content owners the protection they need while at the same time ensuring the end user (or reader) has a good experience. Make sure, when you are looking for DRM software, that the solution offers readers a seamless, non-intrusive experience, and just enough security to make sure the documents go where they are meant to and nowhere else.

#2 It’s not needed in today’s world.


We’re used to everything being readily available to us online and the natural inclination we have is that everything “should” be accessible. The open environment of the internet, it is argued, should determine what is acceptable and what is not.

While this would be an awesome ideal, it’s just not feasible in reality. Companies and organizations do need to digitally share information that is sensitive, and may be under legal obligation to protect this vital data, like financial, legal, or health care data. Additionally, there are trade secrets that companies don’t want competitors to learn, board minutes and notes, legal contracts and documents, and a whole variety of information that shouldn’t be shared with the wild wild web, or other individuals who are not authorized to access the information.

Other companies and organizations invest time, effort, and money into producing materials that are copyrighted, trademarked and produce revenue for them, such as training materials, eBooks and other documents. They need a way to protect these assets, just as you would lock your car, or insure your house.

#3 It’s too expensive


That depends on how you look at it. Like car insurance, it can save you a lot if you get in an accident. With the costs of copyright infringement or patent lawsuits ranging from $350,000 – 5,000,000, it’s no wonder companies want to avoid having to take legal action. Document protection is cheap by comparison!

Companies find that investing in document protection as part of their risk mitigation efforts not only prevents costly legal fees, but prevents revenue loss, blow-back from leaks, and other damaging consequences that can have huge impacts on the bottom line. With a good DRM system it is much more prudent to take some reasonable steps to prevent these consequences before they happen.

#4 Security can be broken


We can’t deny that at times, secured content can get broken into. Just as a determined thief can circumvent the locks on a house, we’ve seen that determined hackers or technically savvy individuals can circumvent even the strictest security policies of a document or IT firewall.

The higher level of security a document has, the less likely it will be broken or “hacked” into. At Vitrium, we have strong encryption (256bit) options, and lighter weight options (128 bit encryption, or “social DRM”) for all security needs while maintaining a hassle-free experience for readers.
 
 
Find the right balance between reader experience and the security you need. When you are choosing a service to protect your documents, think about the impact of the tool on your users balanced against the level of protection you need, or must, provide.
 


 
Download eBook: Top 6 Reasons to Protect Your Documents
This was an excerpt from our eBook: Top 6 Reasons to Protect Your Documents. If you want to read more, you can download the full eBook.
 
 
 
 

Protectedpdf DRM Encryption Now Works with Box, Dropbox, Google Drive & MS OneDrive

Protectedpdf Now Works with Box, Dropbox, Google Drive & MS OneDrive[PRWEB | Vancouver, May 21, 2015] Vitrium™ announced today that it has released version 5.6 of Protectedpdf, the popular cloud-based DRM and document encryption software solution. This latest version integrates the solution with Box, Dropbox, Google Drive and MS OneDrive making it easier to upload files from these services and save secure documents to these services anytime.

Standard and Pro Edition Protectedpdf customers who share, or would like to share, their sensitive and valuable documents via Box, Dropbox, Google Drive and MS OneDrive services, can now secure these documents and easily store them directly onto these familiar cloud file-sharing platforms. Customers having accounts with these services will find it especially useful for sharing confidential, sensitive PDF documents to the cloud service they normally would use where they can distribute them at will.

The PDF document is uploaded from the cloud service of the administrator’s choice, secured, and then can be saved and shared out to that service easily.

Cloud file sharing now included with Protectedpdf!

Cloud file sharing now included with Protectedpdf!

Documents that have been protected within the Protectedpdf interface can be sent to Box, Dropbox, Google Drive, or MS OneDrive, cloud sharing services at any time via the “cloud upload” icon.

Cloud Upload on Protectedpdf

The Protectedpdf interface now has a “Cloud Upload” icon, so you can share secure documents to your fave file sharing platform.

Protectedpdf cloud file sharing

Upload secure Protectedpdf documents to your favourite cloud-sharing platform.

The cloud-sharing feature is included with all Standard and Pro Edition accounts. Enterprise customers will need to contact Vitrium to see if their custom installation can be integrated with these services.

Find out how to use Dropbox, Box, Google Drive, or MS OneDrive, accounts to send files to Protectedpdf, and save secure PDF files directly to any of these services.

Other improvements included in the Protectedpdf version 5.6 release are:

  1. An improved help area that links to Vitrium’s new helpdesk area featuring ticket submission, knowledge base with FAQ’s, search, a community forum, and articles.
  2. Contextual memory for the web link, meaning that should a reader exit the document and then reopen the document, the point of last position will be remembered and display exactly where the reader left off.
  3. Annotations and highlighting will now be remembered while the document is offline, and be synchronized regularly. End-users can also force document synchronization via the synchronization icon as frequently as desired (offline document copy and sharing permissions must be enabled for this feature).

“Everyone knows how popular file-sharing services like Box and Dropbox are. Even if many IT departments don’t like to acknowledge this shadow IT, the fact remains – sensitive information in documents is being shared to these services. This 5.6 release enables Vitrium to meet the market need for a secure solution that can provide wrap-around security for these documents – making sure they are protected within these environments, and enabling administrators to use the tools they are most familiar with.”

– Chris Butlin, President & CEO, Vitrium Systems Inc.

Interested in Protectedpdf? Need integration with your systems? Find out what Vitrium can do for you by requesting a demo.

Read original PR Web post here.

Vitrium Releases Strong 256-Bit Encryption Document DRM for Mobile Users

Vitrium Releases Strong 256-Bit Encryption Document DRM for Mobile Users [PRWEB | Vancouver, May 7, 2015] Vitrium™ announced today that it has released version 5.5 of Protectedpdf, the popular cloud-based DRM (IRM) and document security software solution. This latest version hardens security for its HTML5 web link and provides military grade encryption protection for documents, especially those that are shared to mobile devices.

Confidential documents secured with the Protectedpdf v5.5 web link will now be secured by default using the latest standard in 256-bit AES military grade encryption without the need for end-users to download plugs or proprietary viewers to open it on the other end. The highly secured document is viewable on any modern browser and mobile users will find this DRM document security technology to be more lightweight than many others on the market today.

Organizations with highly sensitive documents, and those who must meet strict compliance and governance obligations, will find this zero-footprint encryption valuable, particularly for mobile end-users. The document-level wrap-around security solution can now meet the need for good governance in regards to confidential information that might travel outside of the perimeter, or be synced to cloud-based file sharing services. Industries that require strong protection will find this enhancement particularly relevant.

Protectedpdf 256-bit encryption is applied to the secured HTML5 web link at the time the document is secured, and includes:

  1. Full 256-bit AES military grade encryption for web linked documents in both online and offline mode
  2. Offline document encryption to ensure the best possible security – preventing unauthorized copying to other devices
  3. Content is encrypted by the server prior to sending it to the client
  4. End-user must have the correct decryption key in order to access content
  5. Strongest brute force attack prevention (1.1 x 10^77 possible key combinations)
  6. One-time hashing of the user’s password
    • Never reveals the user’s password during communication or with the server
    • The password is hashed client side and then only the hash is sent to the server
    • The server hashes the user’s real password using the same one-time hashing key and compares these hashes
    • Man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack also prevented
    • Replay attack also prevented

“Vitrium has committed to providing the best security possible. Strong encryption with the web link technology enables organizations to secure and share their most confidential material while minimizing the impact to end-users who can use any device to access it. This change enables Vitrium to make more of a security commitment to customers, and service new markets that have the need for high-level protection for their sensitive documents.”

– Chris Butlin, President & CEO,Vitrium Systems Inc.

Find out what Vitrium can do for you.

5 Steps to a Secure Document Protection Plan

httppictures.brafton.comliveimagesProtecting-documents-means-changing-default-security-settings_16000937_800884792_0_0_14065396_300A document protection plan can help to ensure that your documents are controlled, tracked and protected. As part of this plan, companies should consider their password policies, the format for their documents, and the delivery mechanism for distributing their files.
 
 

1. Make it a priority, from the top down

Yes, IT is responsible for providing solutions driven by the business need, but it is usually not up to them to identify it. It is essential that all levels of management should buy in to the need to protect intellectual assets, files, and sensitive company data, as it impacts the bottom line, and affects the digital safety and operations of the business. Ensure that executives actively promote secure document sharing policies (document hygiene) so that it becomes part of the corporate culture, and guide departments and staff so that tools and processes are successfully implemented.

2. Identify your “crown jewels”

Determine which documents and files you most need to protect. These are most likely documents that would cause revenue loss or damage to your reputation if leaked. Make a list of these documents and their workflows, and ensure these documents receive protection by utilizing a good DRM solution.

3. Set a password policy

The ability to set up passwords to safeguard content is just one of the advantages of comprehensive document protection plans. Choose a password protection solution that “travels with the document” so that no matter where it resides or ends up, the document itself is protected.

4. Select your document format based on how documents will be accessed

Many companies prefer portable document format (PDF) files because they are a common and familiar format in today’s business environment. More than one billion PDFs exist today, and these files use an open standard that is trusted by many businesses across the globe. These files can be opened on desktops and laptops using Adobe Reader which is standard on most computers.

BYOD, or “bring your own device” is becoming the standard in companies today, and the need for more flexibility in delivering secure documents means that more and more companies are also turning to web-friendly document formats such as HTML5 that can be easily viewed on any device – desktop, laptop, tablet or mobile. And the technology behind HTML5 is ever-improving with more features, improvements, and standards being applied.

5. Determine how your documents will be distributed

When you are considering a document protection plan, keep in mind how your users will be accessing your documents, and where. Even if you are sharing documents internally within a secure environment, such as an LMS (learning management system), CMS (content management system), or virtual data room, does the document remain secured when it is sent externally to a customer, vendor or supplier? Consider how that document might be viewed or accessed and whether you can trust their IT network or mobile security program.

Chose a distribution methodology that will offer the end-user a comfort level opening the document on a variety of devices, and document protection that will travel with the document so that no matter where it ends up, you have control over it.
 


 
Download eBook: Top 6 Reasons to Protect Your Documents
This was an excerpt from our eBook: Top 6 Reasons to Protect Your Documents. If you want to read more, you can download the full eBook.
 
 
 
 

Vitrium Releases Versioning for Protectedpdf® Copyright Protection Software

[Vancouver, Feb 24, 2014] Vitrium™, maker of Protectedpdf® DRM and copyright protection software, announced today that it has released a new version of its popular software that allows Enterprise users the ability to upload and manage multiple versions of their documents. Vitrium has also added a new “Instant Business Case: Why Invest in Document Protection” to their suite of resources available to businesses interested in adding PDF content protection to their risk and access management considerations.

With Vitrium’s new v5.3 release, Enterprise edition administrators can now manage multiple secured versions of their documents within the user interface, allowing for greater flexibility when documents are frequently updated.

To find out about all the new features for Protectedpdf®, go here:

Protectedpdf®’s new features include:

  1. Improved search. Administrators will be able to search for documents via the document code, or the HTML5 web viewer link.
  2. Simplified activity reports. Redundant fields in the activity report have been removed.
  3. Document versioning (Enterprise editions only). Upload multiple versions of a document and manage them right in the dashboard. The new “Version” column in the document area allows administrators to manage these versions via the new “Manage” button, and displays how many versions of the documents have been uploaded. Clicking this button allows access to the versioning management panel of the interface.
  4. Use custom group IDs and external keys. (Enterprise and Pro editions only). Some customers requested the ability to have custom identifiers to track groups. Now these clients will be able to use their own custom IDs and keys.
  5. Use custom reader IDs and external keys. (Enterprise and Pro editions only). Administrators can now track their readers using their own custom IDs and external keys.


“We continue to innovate and respond to our markets with Vitrium’s Protectedpdf®. This new release addresses several requests from customers to manage different editions of their documents, and we’re delighted to be able to offer this feature for customers who require it. Plus, the new “Instant Business Case” makes it easy for CIO’s, CTO’s, and Risk Managers to present a convincing argument for adding user-friendly document security to their business.”

– Chris Butlin, President & CEO
Vitrium Systems Inc.

Instant Business Case: Why Invest in Document ProtectionVitrium’s new “Instant Business Case: Why Invest in Document Protection” makes it easy for business managers to propose content protection. Along with their new infographic “Top 10 Why’s for the C-Suite”, Vitrium presents convincing arguments (especially in light of all the recent information security breaches) for companies to be proactive in adding copyright protection and document security to their information management workflows.
 
 
Interested in Protectedpdf®? Request a demo to find out what Vitrium can do for you.

View the original PR Web release here.

Cost fallout of a data breach felt for years

Experiencing a significant document loss, or even a major data breach, is like having a financial bomb go off in your company.

Recently, the Sony Pictures cyber attack was in the news. While the costs are still to be tallied, estimates of the impacts are in the billions and it’s considered to be the largest in history so far. Not only emails and data were taken during the network intrusion, but unsecured documents of all kinds, including confidential contracts with talent, employee payroll and benefit information, and home addresses. It is likely to take years to determine the full impact. While it is yet to be determined if another government was to blame, the fact remains, if huge companies with their enormous security budgets and infrastructure are vulnerable, all companies, large, small, and in-between, are vulnerable.

In 2013, when Target reported that the credit card information of 110 million customers was floating around in cyberspace, its fourth quarter profit fell almost 50%, second quarter profit for 2014 sank by 62%, full-year earnings forecast has been lowered and total expenses related to the breach stand at $148 million including related expenses.

Home Depot’s data breach left almost 60 million payment cards vulnerable to misuse. Investigation-related costs are pegged at $62 million.

For many companies it’s difficult to calculate the direct and indirect impacts of a data breach or document loss. It can vary widely depending on the nature of the incident. The 2014 Cost of Data Breach Study: Global Analysis reported that the average cost for each lost or stolen record was $145, the average cost of an incident is $3.5 million.

It’s no joke. And many companies (not just the mega corps) need start to taking the threat to their content seriously. Hackers will probe your security with various recon and vulnerability scans, and target businesses in industries that are known to be less likely to deploy multi-layered security technologies and have less robust governance. They will specifically go after the valuable information contained in documents that are less protected, in transit, shared, synced to apps, or on devices.

Cost Breakdown – how much would an incident cost your company?

  • Loss of customers and/or revenue
  • Loss of intellectual property, digital assets, or trade secrets
  • Investigative (forensic) services fees
  • Legal costs (suits, counter-suits, class-action)
  • Infrastructure repair and upgrades
  • PR communications services – damage control
  • Marketing – rebuilding brand reputation, trust, & sales pipeline

Exercise:

Estimate your potential costs in each of these areas assuming a small, medium, or large incident with your most valuable or sensitive documents. What would even a 10% loss of revenue mean? How much risk is your organization willing to assume in light of the potential top-to-bottom-line cost estimates?

For many companies, it’s becoming a necessity to ensure all corporate data and content is safe – wherever it ends up.
 


 
Instant Business Case: Why Invest in Document Protection
This is an excerpt from our latest free white paper, Instant Business Case: Why Invest in Document Protection. If you want to read more, you can download the full white paper.
 
 
 
 
 

Protectedpdf® v4 installations scheduled for end of life

Protectedpdf® v4 installations are scheduled for end-of-life effective December 31, 2016. This will affect clients using Protectedpdf® Pro and Protectedpdf® Enterprise (installed edition only).

What this means for Protectedpdf® customers

Before Dec 31, 2016
Vitrium will continue to support Protectedpdf® installations with bug fixes, minor updates to software, and ensure compatibility with future releases of Adobe Reader/Acrobat, Microsoft Windows Server, SQL Server, and all modern web browsers.

After Dec 31, 2016
Installed versions of Protectedpdf® v4 will not be supported by Vitrium and will eventually lose functionality.

But that’s two years away!

Upgrading will keep Protectedpdf® software current, and avoid any functional disruption as time goes by. Plus, after upgrading, customers will have access to many new features in addition to features they’ve come to expect from Protectedpdf®.

New features will include:

  • Enhanced security, 128-bit AES encryption plus “man in the middle” (MITM) and replay attack prevention.
  • Greater document control over revocation and reauthorization, plus access to document settings templates.
  • Access to several types of watermarking, including: transparent and diagonal, multiple, multiline and watermark settings templates.
  • Social DRM (sealing documents with no passwords required, no tracking or control).
  • Access to RESTful API.
  • Multilingual messaging support, document cache retention, and admin audit trail.

Compare features of Protectedpdf v4 and v5.

Talk to us about upgrading Protectedpdf® installation sooner rather than later.

If you are a Protectedpdf® v4 customer, we’ll get you started with an upgrade package that makes sense and fits your schedule.

Follow Vitrium to Win an iPhone 6!

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Do you want to get the latest news in data security and privacy? Are you staying on top of trends in DRM or the newest copyright laws? Follow us and we’ll do the work for you. Our mission is link our followers with top stories, best practices, and other resources in order to keep them informed about everything related to document security. Oh and by the way, you could win an iPhone 6!
 
Follow Vitrium to Win an iPhone 6
 

Here’s how it works…

  1. “Follow”, “Like”, or “Subscribe” to any of our official social media channels (Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Google+, or YouTube), and your social media account name will be automatically entered into the draw.
  2.  

  3. On Feb 2nd we’ll announce the winner in all our social channels and on this site! You’ll have 48 hours to “PM” (private message) us in the channel you followed us in and send us your email and details.

It’s really that simple! For more details, go to www.vitrium.com/iphone-contest/
 

What are you waiting for! Follow, Like, Subscribe now!

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Highlight and Markup Your Secure Document: Vitrium Releases New Features for Protectedpdf® Secure PDF Software

[Vancouver, Oct 22, 2014] Vitrium™, maker of Protectedpdf® document DRM security software, announced today that its proprietary HTML5 web viewer (for viewing secured files via a web browser) will be upgraded to allow users (the readers of the document) to highlight and markup text within their secured documents.

Readers can save their highlights and annotations within the document, which is saved “server-side” so the reader can open the document on a different device at a later time – their desktop, laptop, or tablet device – and see their original highlights and annotations. The new feature will be included as part of Vitrium’s Protectedpdf® version 5.2 – due for release in early November.

To find out about all the new features for Protectedpdf®, go here.

Vitrium will be adding a range of additional new functionality to its web enabled document technology that will allow a reader to access secure documents via an HTML link:

  1. Custom login interface. The login for the secure HTML document will be customizable, allowing for branding and messaging opportunities for document owners, and readers will appreciate having a seamless login experience with their protected documents and materials.
  2. Single Sign-On. The online viewing of the document will now support “single sign-on” from a secure web portal or site, enabling a much more integrated and seamless experience for readers accessing materials. This “behind the scenes” feature may require a service engagement with Vitrium to integrate Pro and Enterprise versions of Protectedpdf®.
  3. Social DRM. The web view of the document now supports the same “social DRM” features we introduced into Protectedpdf® v5 desktop view, enabling administrators to apply a layer of security and a watermark to their documents, without requiring a login method to unlock the document. This lightweight DRM option is especially attractive to document owners who don’t require full security, but want the benefit of deterrence.
  4. Multiple Watermarks. The online version of the secure document now supports multiple watermarks enabling owners to stamp documents with however many watermarks required. This option is only available in the Pro and Enterprise versions of Protectedpdf®.

“Vitrium’s Protectedpdf® continues to deliver excellent reader experiences. With our new agile development framework, we’re listening to our customers and delivering improvements to our product in a much more responsive and timely manner. I think our customers and their readers will especially appreciate the new highlighting and annotating functionality available in the web viewer component of Protectedpdf® (the secure HTML link).”

Susan Daly, President & CEO
Vitrium Systems Inc.

Interested in Protectedpdf®? Until Dec 31st 2014, Protectedpdf® software is 20% off. Find out what Vitrium can do for you at www.vitrium.com/treat-your-documents.

View the original PR Web release here.

Fresh New Interface Invigorates Protectedpdf® Document DRM Security Software – Customers Love It

[Vancouver, Sept 15, 2014] Vitrium™, providers of PDF document security and DRM solutions, announced today that their recent upgrade of Protectedpdf® to version 5.0 has been a resounding success with its customers. The sweeping set of new features introduced in July this year brought a fresh new interface design, enhanced security, and more utility to Vitrium’s popular Protectedpdf® document security software solution – making it one the most hassle-free, robust, and feature-rich document security solutions on the market today.

“I’ve been playing with the new interface today and have to say I like it. It makes many things much, much easier. Kudos all around.” – Happy Protectedpdf® Customer

To find out more about all the features now included with Protectedpdf, click here!

Customers Love Protectedpdf’s New Features:

Protectedpdf New Interface

1. Fresh and Faster Interface
A newly designed administrative interface modernizes, simplifies and streamlines the tool making it much more intuitive and useful for Protectedpdf® administrators. It looks awesome!

A new setup wizard, tooltips, and easy-to-understand graphics, help customers get up and running with the new interface quickly, and enable users to process a secure document faster. Pro and Enterprise customers are able to access these features with an upgrade.

2. Watermarking Enhancements
Protectedpdf® Pro and Enterprise customers can now have improved watermarking with multiple true (transparent and/or diagonal) watermarks, dynamic (user triggered) watermarks, and watermarks that can span multiple lines (they contain line breaks). These enhancements offer content creators the ability to not only protect documents better with more robust watermarks, but also limit the visual interference a watermark can have on branded documents should it be desired.

3. New “Social DRM”
All customers now have the option to choose “Social DRM”, a lightweight DRM solution that simply seals the document with a generic, text-based watermark (transparent and/or diagonal) that needs no passwords or logins to open! This new feature is an answer to many Vitrium customer requests to have robust DRM for some documents, and a totally hassle-free reader experience for other documents.

4. Web Viewer Bookmark Support
The web viewer now displays bookmarks from the original PDF, and shows these bookmarks in the toolbar. Users will be able to use these bookmarks to click to various sections in the document, making it easier to navigate long complex PDF documents.

5. Hardened security
All hosted Standard, Pro and Enterprise customers now have built-in: AES 128-bit encryption, MITM attack prevention, Replay attack prevention, and a more robust locking methodology is used behind the scenes to seal the document. Enterprise customers with installed solutions are able to take advantage of these improvements when they update their Protectedpdf® Enterprise Server.

6. Unlimited Customizable Document Policy Templates
Administrators now can apply custom policy templates at the document level. This makes it much easier for document owners to save common settings as a policy (template) and easily apply them to new documents as they are sealed. Admins can store as many policies as they like and apply them to any applicable document.

Many of the new features have been upgraded automatically for Standard, Pro and hosted Enterprise customers, and some are available as options in an upgrade. Installed Enterprise customers require an update to their Protectedpdf® Enterprise Server.

7. Improved API
With the new release, Vitrium has brought the Protectedpdf® API into alignment with best practices in API development using the RESTful development architecture. Pro and Enterprise customers can have integration up and running in minutes and will notice a simplified, intuitive and clean API interface.

“We’re delighted that our customers are reacting so positively to the improvements we’ve made to Protectedpdf®. We’ve worked hard to listen to our customers, and respond with improvements that make our software easier to use and more functional. This upgrade was one of the biggest upgrades to Protectedpdf® that we have made to date, and we’ll continue to evolve and grow so that Protectedpdf® keeps its position as the most hassle-free document protection tool available in the market.” – Susan Daly, President & CEO, Vitrium Systems Inc.

For more information about this upgrade and all the new features, go to http://www.vitrium.com/new-features/

New free book: Top 6 reasons for protecting your documents! http://www.vitrium.com/resources/document-protection-white-papers-ebooks/

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1 A Man-in-the-Middle attack, is a form of active eavesdropping in which the attacker makes independent connections with the victims and relays messages between them, making them believe that they are talking directly to each other over a private connection, when in fact the entire conversation is controlled by the attacker. (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man-in-the-middle_attack)
2 Replay attack is a form of network attack in which a valid data transmission is maliciously or fraudulently repeated or delayed. This is carried out either by the originator or by an adversary who intercepts the data and retransmits it, possibly as part of a masquerade attack by IP packet substitution (such as stream cipher attack). (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stream_cipher_attack)